Excessive mechanical loading promotes osteoarthritis through the gremlin-1-NF-κB pathway.

08:00 EDT 29th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Excessive mechanical loading promotes osteoarthritis through the gremlin-1-NF-κB pathway."

Exposure of articular cartilage to excessive mechanical loading is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Here, we identify gremlin-1 as a mechanical loading-inducible factor in chondrocytes, detected at high levels in middle and deep layers of cartilage after cyclic strain or hydrostatic pressure loading. Gremlin-1 activates nuclear factor-κB signalling, leading to subsequent induction of catabolic enzymes. In mice intra-articular administration of gremlin-1 antibody or chondrocyte-specific deletion of Gremlin-1 decelerates osteoarthritis development, while intra-articular administration of recombinant gremlin-1 exacerbates this process. Furthermore, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 activation induced by mechanical loading enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Amongst ROS-activating transcription factors, RelA/p65 induces Gremlin-1 transcription, which antagonizes induction of anabolic genes such as Sox9, Col2a1, and Acan by bone morphogenetic proteins. Thus, gremlin-1 plays essential roles in cartilage degeneration by excessive mechanical loading.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Nature communications
ISSN: 2041-1723
Pages: 1442


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