Beyond the lungs: Alpha-1 antitrypsin's potential role in human gestation.

08:00 EDT 27th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Beyond the lungs: Alpha-1 antitrypsin's potential role in human gestation."

Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute-phase protein with strong inhibitory activity towards proteolytic enzymes, mainly elastase but also trypsin, chymotrypsin and thrombin. The biological role of the protein and the effects of its deficiency have been subjects of scientific research for years, yet in many areas our knowledge remains incomplete. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), a defect in AAT synthesis and functionality, is one of the most frequently inherited genetic disorders among Caucasian populations. Its severe form is characterized by very low serum levels of AAT, and it most often affects the lungs (causing early-onset emphysema or chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD)) and/or liver (leading to jaundice and liver cirrhosis in children and adults). However, little is known about other possible clinical consequences of AAT deficiency. We discuss AAT's potential role in mechanisms regulating human fertility and gestation, with a particular emphasis on the clinical context and on indications for AATD diagnostic testing.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Advances in clinical and experimental medicine : official organ Wroclaw Medical University
ISSN: 1899-5276


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN, leading primarily to degradation of elastin of the alveolar walls, as well as other structural proteins of a variety of tissues. (From Scriver, Beaudet, Sly, & Valle, The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 7th ed, p4125)

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A transcription factor that regulates the expression of a large set of hepatic proteins including SERUM ALBUMIN; beta-fibrinogen; and ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN. It is composed of hetero- or homo-dimers of HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA and HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-BETA.

Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.

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