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High glucose (HG)-induced endothelial senescence and dysfunction contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in diabetes. Empagliflozin, a selective sodium glucose co-transporter2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, reduced the risk of cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetic patients but the protective mechanism remains unclear. This study examines the role of SGLT2 in HG-induced endothelial senescence and dysfunction. Porcine coronary artery cultured endothelial cells (ECs) or segments were exposed to HG (25 mmol/L) before determination of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, protein level by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining, mRNA by RT-PCR, nitric oxide (NO) by electron paramagnetic resonance, oxidative stress using dihydroethidium and glucose uptake using 2-NBD-glucose. HG increased ECs senescence markers and oxidative stress, down-regulated eNOS expression and NO formation, and induced the expression of VCAM-1, tissue factor, and the local angiotensin system, all these effects were prevented by empagliflozin. Empagliflozin and LX-4211 (dual SGLT1/2 inhibitor) reduced glucose uptake stimulated by HG and H O in ECs. HG increased SGLT1 and 2 protein levels in cultured ECs and native endothelium. Inhibition of the angiotensin system prevented HG-induced ECs senescence and SGLT1 and 2 expression. Thus, HG-induced ECs ageing is driven by the local angiotensin system via the redox-sensitive up-regulation of SGLT1 and 2, and, in turn, enhanced glucotoxicity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
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An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...