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Intestinal diseases caused by sleep deprivation (SD) are severe public health threats worldwide. This study focuses on the effect of melatonin on intestinal mucosal injury and microbiota dysbiosis in sleep-deprived mice. Mice subjected to SD had significantly elevated norepinephrine levels and decreased melatonin content in plasma. Consistent with the decrease in melatonin levels, we observed a decrease of antioxidant ability, down-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in sleep-deprived mice, which resulted in colonic mucosal injury, including a reduced number of goblet cells, PCNA-positive cells, expression of MUC2 and tight junction proteins and elevated expression of ATG5, Beclin1, p-P65 and p-IκB. High-throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA demonstrated that the diversity and richness of the colonic microbiota were decreased in sleep-deprived mice, especially in probiotics, including Akkermansia, Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium. However, the pathogen Aeromonas was markedly increased. By contrast, supplementation with 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg melatonin reversed these SD-induced changes and improved the mucosal injury and dysbiosis of the microbiota in the colon. Our results suggest that the effect of SD on intestinal barrier dysfunction might be an outcome of melatonin suppression rather than a loss of sleep per se. SD-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction involved the suppression of melatonin production and activation of the NF-κB pathway by oxidative stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of pineal research
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A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
Complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by distinctive facial features (FACIES), developmental delay and mental retardation. Behavioral phenotypes include sleep disturbance, maladaptive, self-injurious and attention-seeking behaviors. The sleep disturbance is linked to an abnormal circadian secretion pattern of MELATONIN. The syndrome is associated with de novo deletion or mutation and HAPLOINSUFFICIENCY of the retinoic acid-induced 1 protein on chromosome 17p11.2.
Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)
Sleep disorders disrupt sleep during the night, or cause sleepiness during the day, caused by physiological or psychological factors. The common ones include snoring and sleep apnea, insomnia, parasomnias, sleep paralysis, restless legs syndrome, circa...
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Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...