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African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal haemorrhagic disease in domestic and wild swine that has acquired great importance in sub-Saharan Africa since 1997. ASF was first reported in Cameroon in 1982 and was detected only in Southern Cameroon (South, West, East, Northwest, Southwest, Littoral, and Centre regions) until February 2010 when suspected ASF outbreaks were reported in the North and Far North regions. We investigated those outbreaks by analysing samples that were collected from sick pigs between 2010 and 2018. We confirmed 428 positive samples by ELISA and real-time PCR and molecularly characterized 48 representative isolates. All the identified virus isolates were classified as ASFV genotype I based on the partial B646L gene (C-terminal end of VP72 gene) and the full E183L gene encoding p54 protein analysis. Furthermore, analysis of the central variable region (CVR) within the B602L gene demonstrated that there were 3 different variants of ASFV genotype I, with 19, 20, and 21 tetrameric tandem repeat sequences (TRSs), that were involved in the 2010-2018 outbreaks in Cameroon. Among them, only variant A (19 TRSs) was identical to the Cam/82 isolate found in the country during the first outbreaks in 1981-1982. This study demonstrated that the three variants of ASFV isolates involved in these outbreaks were similar to those of neighbouring countries, suggesting a movement of ASFV strains across borders. Designing common control measures in affected regions and providing a compensation programme for farmers will help reduce the incidence and spread of this disease.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea)
African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus, is a hemorrhagic and often fatal disease of domestic pigs and wild boar, which is notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health...
The continuing spread of African swine fever (ASF) outside Africa in Europe, the Russian Federation, China and most recently to Mongolia and Vietnam, has heightened awareness of the threat posed by th...
African swine fever virus causes a haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs and wild boar. The continuing spread in Africa, Europe and Asia threatens the global pig industry. The lack of a vaccine limits d...
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182850.].
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The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.
A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
Immunoassay - ELISA
Immunoassays are quick and accurate tests to detect specific molecules. Immunoassays rely on an antibody to bind to the specific structure of a molecule. Antibodies are proteins generated by animals in response to the invasion of a foreign molecule (anti...
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...