Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes substantial neurological disabilities and mental distress. Annual TBI incidence is in magnitude of millions, making it a global health challenge. Categorization of TBI into severe, moderate and mild by scores on the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is based on clinical grounds and standard brain imaging (CT). Recent research focused on repeated mild TBI (sport and non-sport concussions) suggests that a considerable number of patients have long-term disabling neurocognitive and neurobehavioral sequelae. These relate to subtle neuronal injury (diffuse axonal injury) visible only by using advanced neuroimaging distinguishing microstructural tissue damage. With advanced MRI protocols better characterization of TBI is achievable. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) visualizes white matter pathology, susceptibility weight imaging (SWI) detects microscopic bleeding while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides closer understanding of cognitive disorders etc. However, advanced imaging is still not integrated in the clinical care of patients with TBI. Patients with chronic TBI may experience many somatic disorders, cognitive disturbances and mental complaints. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms occurring in TBI are complex, brain injuries are highly heterogeneous and include neuroendocrine dysfunctions. Post-traumatic neuroendocrine dysfunctions received attention since the year 2000. Occurrence of TBI-related hypopituitarism does not correlate to severity of the GCS scores. Complete or partial hypopituitarism (isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency as most frequent) may occur after mild TBI equally as after moderate-to-severe TBI. Many symptoms of hypopituitarism overlap with symptoms occurring in patients with chronic TBI, i.e. they have lower scores on neuropsychological examinations (cognitive disability) and have more symptoms of mental distress (depression and fatigue). The great challenges for the endocrinologist are: (1) detection of hypopituitarism in patients with TBI prospectively (in the acute phase and months to years after TBI), (2) assessment of the extent of cognitive impairment at baseline, and (3) monitoring of treatment effects (alteration of cognitive functioning and mental distress with hormone replacement therapy). Only few studies recently suggest that with growth hormone (rhGH) replacement in patients with chronic TBI and with abnormal GH secretion, cognitive performance may not change while symptoms related to depression and fatigue improve. Stagnation in post-TBI rehabilitation progress is recommended as a signal for clinical suspicion of neuroendocrine dysfunction. This remains a challenging area for more research.
This article was published in the following journal.
While the cognitive sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are well known, emotional impairments after TBI are suboptimally characterized. Lack of awareness of emotional difficulties can make self-r...
Functional impairment associated with Neurocognitive Disorder is often claimed in medico-legal settings after mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). This case-control study examined self-reported functio...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the major public health problem worldwide, particularly in the Middle East. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is commonly found in TBI. Although DAI can lead to physical and ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) exerts a significant impact on society with regards to physical, affective, and cognitive impairment. The consequent cognitive sequelae include a problem in memory, attent...
Repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by Alzheimer-like changes in the brain. CTE ha...
Study to Assess the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of AVP-786 for the Treatment of Neurobehavioral Disinhibition Including Aggression, Agitation, and Irritability in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury
This is a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate AVP-786 for the treatment of neurobehavioral disinhibition including aggression, agitation, and irritability in part...
The study will explore the neurocognitive effect of four weeks of treatment with amantadine versus placebo in patients with traumatic brain injury using the Interval Bisection Timing Task....
To learn more about behavior and everyday functioning after brain injury, and to learn if behavior and functioning gets better with more education about changes after brain injury.
The purpose of this study is to address the need for targeted treatments that induce functional and structural changes in the brain, ultimately improving neurobehavioral functioning, the i...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by accidents is a very important public health problem in Taiwan. There are many people with brain damage and cognitive dysfunction caused by traumatic ...
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
A form of acquired brain injury which occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain.
Anxiety is caused by stress. It is a natural reaction, and is beneficial in helping us deal with tense situations and pressure. It is deterimental when is becomes an excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations. The most common types of anxiety di...
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...