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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health problem with an increasing incidence in the last years. Relatively few cases are fatal; most individuals will survive and, in the long-term, the sequalae of TBI will include neuroendocrine dysfunctions with a much higher frequency than previously suspected. Patients who develop hypopituitarism after TBI present manifestations due to the number of deficient hormones, severity of hormonal deficiency, and the duration of hypopituitarism without diagnosis and treatment. The clinical spectrum of hypopituitarism is very large and many signs and symptoms of TBI survivors such as fatigue, concentration difficulties, depressive symptoms are nonspecific and overlap with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and variably severe hypopituitarism related to brain damage remaining undiagnosed. This can explain why the diagnosis of hypopituitarism is often missed or delayed after this condition with potentially serious and hazardous consequences for the affected patients. Moreover, clinical experience cumulatively suggests that TBI-associated hypopituitarism is associated with poor recovery and worse outcome, since post-traumatic hypopituitarism is independently associated with cognitive impairment, poor quality of life, abnormal body composition, and adverse metabolic profile. In the present review, the current data related to clinical consequences of pituitary dysfunction after TBI in adult patients and therapeutic approaches are reported.
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