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Physical interactions of bacteria with host cells are often a principal aspect of bacterial pathogenesis. In the case of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), which does not produce a secreted toxin, adhesion to and/or invasion of host cells is necessary for colonization of the nasopharynx and subsequently to cause opportunistic disease in its human host. Knowledge of how pneumococci interact with host cells thereby helps to explain its biology and may identify potential targets for intervention. One of the simplest, yet powerful, assays that can be leveraged to dissect the molecular basis of this vital host-pathogen interaction is the in vitro adhesion and invasion assay. Among many key results, this assay has been used to discover the bacterial and host determinants involved in bacterial attachment, identify host signaling networks required for uptake of the bacteria into an endosome, and the characterization of the intracellular trafficking machinery that is subverted by Spn during development of bacteremia and meningitis. These assays have also been used to characterize the epithelial, endothelial, and/or immune cell response to these bacteria, and to learn how pneumococci disperse from an established biofilm to a planktonic phenotype to colonize another niche and/or transmit. Herein, we will review this protocol, highlighting how simple changes in the bacterial strain or host cell line can elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms for Spn virulence.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A large heterogeneous group of mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci. They colonize the respiratory tract at birth and generally have a low degree of pathogenicity. This group of species includes STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS; STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. The latter are often beta-hemolytic and commonly produce invasive pyogenic infections including brain and abdominal abscesses.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the FRONTAL SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE or HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE.
Pneumonia (bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia and double pneumonia) is inflammation (swelling) of the tissue in one or both of your lungs. It is usually caused by an pneumococcal infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. However,...
Immunoassay - ELISA
Immunoassays are quick and accurate tests to detect specific molecules. Immunoassays rely on an antibody to bind to the specific structure of a molecule. Antibodies are proteins generated by animals in response to the invasion of a foreign molecule (anti...
An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity. This can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample. ...