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As the production of metallic nanoparticles has grown, it is important to assess their impacts on structural and functional components of ecosystems. We investigated the effects of zinc and titanium nanoparticles on leaf decomposition in freshwater habitats. We hypothesized that nanoparticles would inhibit the growth and activity of microbial communities leading to decreased decomposition rates. We also hypothesized that under natural light, the nanoparticles would produce reactive oxygen species that could potentially accelerate decomposition. In the lab, whole Ficus vasta leaves were placed in containers holding one liter of stream water and exposed to either 0, 1, 10 or 100 mg/L of ZnO or TiO nanoparticles for six weeks (referred to as Exp. 1). We measured leaf mass loss, microbial metabolism, and bacterial density at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. In a second experiment (referred to as Exp. 2), we measured the effects of light and 10 and 100 mg/L ZnO or TiO nanoparticles on leaf mass loss, bacterial density and the bacterial and fungal community diversity over a 2 week period. In Experiment 1, mass loss was significantly reduced at 10 and 100 mg/L after 6 weeks and bacterial density decreased at 100 mg/L. In Experiment 2, there was no effect of ZnO nanoparticles on leaf mass loss, but TiO nanoparticles significantly reduced mass loss in the dark but not in the light. One possible explanation is that release of reactive oxygen species by the TiO nanoparticles in the light may have increased the rate of leaf decomposition. Bacterial and fungal diversity was highest in the dark, but nanoparticles did not reduce overall diversity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Ecotoxicology (London, England)
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the toxicity of six different types of titanium dioxide (TiO) nanoparticles (NP) on human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK).
Ultra-thin aluminium oxide was grown on a rutile titanium dioxide surface by atomic layer deposition using trimethylaluminium and water precursors. This process, carried out using realistic temperatur...
To evaluate the addition of titanium dioxide (TiO) nanoparticles and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) on the compressive strength and antibacterial activity of conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC).
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The effects on indices of gingivitis/periodontitis will differ between study arms in which the titanium dioxide semiconductor toothbrush is used, compared to an otherwise identical toothbr...
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Assessment of the impact of oral Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) application on acute diarrhoea and the development of prolonged and persistent diarrhoea in paediatric patients hospitali...
Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
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A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)