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Research on spatial injury patterns is limited by a lack of precise injury occurrence location data. Using linked hospital and death records, we examined residence and injury locations for firearm assaults and homicides in or among residents of King County, Washington, USA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014. In total, 670 injuries were identified, 586 with geocoded residence and injury locations. Three-quarters of injuries occurred outside the census tract where the victim resided. Median distance between locations was 3.9 miles, with victims 18-34 having the greatest distances between residence and injury location. 40 of 398 tracts had a ratio of injury incidents to injured residents of >1. Routine collection of injury location data and homelessness status could decrease misclassification and bias. Researchers should consider whether residential address is an appropriate proxy for injury location, based on data quality and their specific research question.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
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Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.