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A novel series of triazole-based compounds have been designed, synthesised and evaluated as multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) against Alzheimer disease (AD). The triazole-based compounds have been designed to target four major AD hallmarks that include Aβ aggregation, metal-induced Aβ aggregation, metal dys-homeostasis and oxidative stress. Among the synthesised compounds, 6n having o-CF group on the phenyl ring displayed most potent inhibitory activity (96.89% inhibition, IC = 8.065 ± 0.129 μM) against Aβ aggregation, compared to the reference compound curcumin (95.14% inhibition, IC = 6.385 ± 0.009 μM). Compound 6n disassembled preformed Aβ aggregates as effectively as curcumin. Furthermore, 6n displayed metal chelating ability and significantly inhibited Cu-induced Aβ aggregation and disassembled preformed Cu-induced Aβ aggregates. 6n successfully controlled the generation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by preventing the copper redox cycle. In addition, 6n did not display cytotoxicity and was able to inhibit toxicity induced by Aβ aggregates in SH-SY5Y cells. The preferred binding regions and key interactions of 6n with Aβ monomer and Aβ protofibril structure was evaluated with molecular docking. Compound 6n binds preferably to the C-terminal region of Aβ that play a critical role in Aβ aggregation. The results of the present study highlight a novel triazole-based compound, 6n, as a promising MTDL against AD.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Bioorganic chemistry
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