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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are discovered as crucial pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Later studies showed their involvement in the recognition of various damage/danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated by host itself. Thus, TLRs are capable of recognizing wide-array of patterns/molecules derived from pathogens and host as well and initiating a proinflammatory immune response through the activation of NF-κB and other transcription factors causing synthesis of proinflammatory molecules. The process of neuroinflammation is seen under both sterile and infectious inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and may lead to the development of neurodegeneration. The present article is designed to highlight the importance of TLRs in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation under diverse conditions. TLRs are expressed by various immune cells present in CNS along with neurons. However out of thirteen TLRs described in mammals, some are present and active in these cells, while some are absent and are described in detail in main text. The role of various immune cells present in the brain and their role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation depending on the type of TLR expressed is described. Thereafter the role of TLRs in bacterial meningitis, viral encephalitis, stroke, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and autoimmune disease including multiple sclerosis (MS) is described. The article is designed for both neuroscientists needing information regarding TLRs in neuroinflammation and TLR biologists or immunologists interested in neuroinflammation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of neuroimmunology
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The first objective of this study is to determine if increased expression of one or more members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family of receptors that are found on inflammatory cells (p...
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A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
A group of cell-surface receptors for oxidatively modified LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. The group includes certain SCAVENGER RECEPTORS that contribute to the pathogenesis of ATHEROSCLEROSIS by uptake of oxidized LDL.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 2.
A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. For example: to diagnose diseases to measure the progress or recovery from disease to confirm that a person is free from disease Clin...
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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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