A novel sulfonamide resistance mechanism by two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase system in sulfonamide-degrading actinobacteria.

08:00 EDT 28th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "A novel sulfonamide resistance mechanism by two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase system in sulfonamide-degrading actinobacteria."

Sulfonamide-degrading bacteria have been discovered in various environments, suggesting the presence of novel resistance mechanisms via drug inactivation. In this study, Microbacterium sp. CJ77 capable of utilizing various sulfonamides as a sole carbon source was isolated from a composting facility. Genome and proteome analyses revealed that a gene cluster containing a flavin-dependent monooxygenase and a flavin reductase was highly up-regulated in response to sulfonamides. Biochemical analysis showed that the two-component monooxygenase system was key enzymes for the initial cleavage of sulfonamides. Co-expression of the two-component system in Escherichia coli conferred decreased susceptibility to sulfamethoxazole, indicating that the genes encoding drug-inactivating enzymes are potential resistance determinants. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the gene cluster containing sulfonamide monooxygenase (renamed as sulX) and flavin reductase (sulR) was highly conserved in a genomic island shared among sulfonamide-degrading actinobacteria, all of which also contained sul1-carrying class 1 integrons. These results suggest that the sulfonamide metabolism may have evolved in sulfonamide-resistant bacteria which had already acquired the class 1 integron under sulfonamide selection pressures. Furthermore, the presence of multiple insertion sequence elements and putative composite transposon structures containing the sulX gene cluster indicated potential mobilization. This is the first study to report that sulX responsible for both sulfonamide degradation and resistance is prevalent in sulfonamide-degrading actinobacteria and its genetic signatures indicate horizontal gene transfer of the novel resistance gene.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Environment international
ISSN: 1873-6750
Pages: 206-215


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