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Sulfonamide-degrading bacteria have been discovered in various environments, suggesting the presence of novel resistance mechanisms via drug inactivation. In this study, Microbacterium sp. CJ77 capable of utilizing various sulfonamides as a sole carbon source was isolated from a composting facility. Genome and proteome analyses revealed that a gene cluster containing a flavin-dependent monooxygenase and a flavin reductase was highly up-regulated in response to sulfonamides. Biochemical analysis showed that the two-component monooxygenase system was key enzymes for the initial cleavage of sulfonamides. Co-expression of the two-component system in Escherichia coli conferred decreased susceptibility to sulfamethoxazole, indicating that the genes encoding drug-inactivating enzymes are potential resistance determinants. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the gene cluster containing sulfonamide monooxygenase (renamed as sulX) and flavin reductase (sulR) was highly conserved in a genomic island shared among sulfonamide-degrading actinobacteria, all of which also contained sul1-carrying class 1 integrons. These results suggest that the sulfonamide metabolism may have evolved in sulfonamide-resistant bacteria which had already acquired the class 1 integron under sulfonamide selection pressures. Furthermore, the presence of multiple insertion sequence elements and putative composite transposon structures containing the sulX gene cluster indicated potential mobilization. This is the first study to report that sulX responsible for both sulfonamide degradation and resistance is prevalent in sulfonamide-degrading actinobacteria and its genetic signatures indicate horizontal gene transfer of the novel resistance gene.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environment international
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An NADPH-dependent flavin monooxygenase that plays a key role in the catabolism of TRYPTOPHAN by catalyzing the HYDROXYLATION of KYNURENINE to 3-hydroxykynurenine. It was formerly characterized as EC 188.8.131.52 and EC 184.108.40.206.
A benzamide-sulfonamide-indole. It is called a thiazide-like diuretic but structure is different enough (lacking the thiazo-ring) so it is not clear that the mechanism is comparable.
An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...