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Fluorogenic nanoprobes capable of providing microenvironmental information have extensively been developed to improve the diagnostic accuracy for early or metastatic cancer detection. In cancer-associated microenvironment, matrix metalloproteinase-2,9 (MMP-2,9) has drawn attention as a representative enzymatic marker for diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of various cancers, which is overexpressed in the primary site as well as metastatic regions. Here, we devised dual-emissive fluorogenic nanoprobe (DFNP) emitting both MMP-2,9-sensitive and insensitive fluorescence signals, for accurate monitoring of the MMP-2,9 activity in metastatic regions. DFNP was nanoscopically constructed by amphiphilic self-assembly between a constantly fluorescent polymer surfactant labeled with Cy7 (F127-Cy7) and an initially nonfluorescent hydrophobic peptide (Cy5.5-MMP-Q) that is fluorogenic in response to MMP-2,9. Ratiometric readout (Cy5.5/Cy7) by dual-channel imaging could normalize the enzyme-responsive sensing signal relative to the constantly emissive internal reference that reflects the probe amount, allowing for semi-quantitative analysis on the MMP-2,9-related tissue microenvironment. In addition to the dual-channel emission, the nanoconstructed colloidal structure of DFNP enabled efficient accumulation to lymph node in vivo. Because of these two colloidal characteristics, when injected intradermally to a mouse model of lymph node metastasis, DFNP could produce reliable ratiometric signals to provide information on the MMP-2,9 activity in the lymph nodes depending on metastatic progression, which corresponded well to the temporal histologic analysis. Furthermore, ratiometric lymph node imaging with DFNP after photodynamic therapy allowed for monitoring a therapeutic response to the given cancer treatment, demonstrating diagnostic and prognostic potential of the nanoconstructed colloidal sensor of tumor microenvironment in cancer treatment.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
Subpopulation of heterogeneous fibroblasts within the TUMOR MICROENVIRONMENT that support NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES.
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A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
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