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Planting of street trees in cities and other high-density urban environments can provide significant social, economic and environmental benefits. However, street trees in pavements can often lead to shallow root growth resulting in damage to pavements, kerbs, roads and buried services. This study investigated whether pavement damage by tree roots could be reduced by planting trees in a permeable pavement system with an underlying layer of 20 mm diameter gravel to direct tree roots deeper into the pavement structure. A six-year duration field experiment was conducted to compare the growth of trees and their root systems in a conventional impermeable pavement with growth in a series of permeable pavements with different depths of underlying gravel basecourse. The results demonstrated that permeable pavements with underlying gravel layers encouraged tree roots to travel deeper into the underlying subgrade soil, thereby reducing costly pavement damage. This effect was more pronounced with deeper rather than shallower basecourse layers. While permeable pavements affected tree root growth, they had no significant influence on tree height after six years' growth.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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A pathologic change in leukemia in which leukemic cells permeate various organs at any stage of the disease. All types of leukemia show various degrees of infiltration, depending upon the type of leukemia. The degree of infiltration may vary from site to site. The liver and spleen are common sites of infiltration, the greatest appearing in myelocytic leukemia, but infiltration is seen also in the granulocytic and lymphocytic types. The kidney is also a common site and of the gastrointestinal system, the stomach and ileum are commonly involved. In lymphocytic leukemia the skin is often infiltrated. The central nervous system too is a common site.
An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).
A genus of trees in the VERBENACEAE (sometimes classified in the LAMIACEAE) family containing assorted flavonoids with possible analgesic and antineoplastic properties. The fruit of these trees is used in herbal preparations.
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
An accidental or deliberate dose of a medication or street drug that is in excess of what is normally used.