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Graphene oxide (GO) is an oxidized form of graphene that is relatively cheap and easy to produce. This has heralded its widespread use in a range of industries, with its likelihood of release into the environment increasing accordingly. In pure culture, GO has been shown to influence bacteria and fungi, but its effects on environmental microbial communities remain poorly characterized, despite the important ecosystem services that these organisms underpin. Here, we characterized the effects of GO and graphite, over time (7, 14 and 30 days) and at three concentrations (1 ng, 1 μg and 1 mg kg dry soil), on soil bacterial and fungal diversity using 16S rRNA and ITS2 gene amplicon sequencing. Graphite was included as a reference material as it is widely distributed in the environment. Neither GO or graphite had significant effects on the alpha diversity of microbial communities. The composition of bacterial and fungal communities, however, was significantly influenced by both materials at all doses. With the exception of the lowest GO dose on day 14, these effects were apparent for all treatments over the course of the experiment. Nonetheless, the effects of GO and graphite were of similar magnitude, albeit with some differences in the taxa affected.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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Graphite. An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.
A mitosporic fungal genus occurring in soil or decaying plant matter. It is structurally similar to Penicillium.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...