GABA allosteric modulators: An overview of recent developments in non-benzodiazepine modulators.

08:00 EDT 23rd March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "GABA allosteric modulators: An overview of recent developments in non-benzodiazepine modulators."

γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory transmitter controlling synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. It is present in a high percentage of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and also present in the peripheral nervous system, and acts to maintain a balance between excitation and inhibition. GABA acts via three subclasses of receptors termed GABA, GABA, and GABA. GABA and GABA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels, while GABA receptors are G-protein coupled receptors. Each class of GABA receptor has distinct pharmacology and physiology. GABA receptors are heteropentameric transmembrane protein complexes made up of α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ε, θ, π subunits, giving rise to numerous allosteric binding sites and have thus attracted much attention targets for the treatment of conditions such as epilepsy, anxiety and sleep disorders. The development of ligands for these binding sites has also led to an improved understanding of the different physiological functions and pathological processes and offers the opportunity for the development of novel therapeutics. This review focuses on the medicinal chemistry aspects including drug design, structure-activity relationships (SAR), and mechanism of actions of GABA modulators, including non-benzodiazepine ligands at the benzodiazepine binding site and modulators acting at sites other than the high-affinity benzodiazepine binding site. Recent advances in this area their future applications and potential therapeutic effects are also highlighted.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: European journal of medicinal chemistry
ISSN: 1768-3254
Pages: 434-461


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.

A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.

Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

Agents that affect MITOSIS of CELLS.

Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.

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