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Plasmids are widely distributed in rhizobia, a group of bacteria able to establish symbiotic relationships with the roots of legume plants. Two types of conjugative transfer (CT) regulation of these elements have been described in more detail. The most prevalent is through Quorum-Sensing (QS), mediated by the interaction of the TraR regulator protein and its cognate acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthesized by TraI. In this study, we analyzed rhizobial plasmids classified according to their TraR regulators into four different groups. Each group has a particular genomic architecture. In one of the groups (I-C), represented by pLPU83a from Rhizobium favelukesii LPU83, CT induction requires TraR. With manual annotation, a traI was located in the plasmid distant to the traR gene. These features make pLPU83a an interesting plasmid for studying novel mechanisms of CT regulation. We mutagenized the traI gene, and found that it does not participate in CT regulation. Furthermore, we studied whether pLPU83a is subject to QS regulation by determining CT at different growth stages (cell densities). Our results showed no positive correlation between increase in cultures densities and CT induction, on the contrary a slight decrease in CT was found at higher culture densities, unlike other TraR-depending plasmids. Our results show that transfer of pLPU83a is not regulated in a QS-dependent manner, and suggest that molecules not yet identified may activate its CT. Also, accumulation of a putative inhibitor cannot be disregarded.
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A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA; (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated they are not included here.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
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