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Equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) outbreaks continue despite widely used vaccination. We demonstrated previously that an ORF1/ORF71 gene deletion mutant of the EHV-1 strain Ab4 (Ab4ΔORF1/71) is less virulent than its parent Ab4 virus. Here, we describe the Ab4 challenge infection evaluating protection induced by the Ab4ΔORF1/71 vaccine candidate. Susceptible control horses developed respiratory disease, fever, nasal shedding, and viremia. Full protection after challenge infection was observed in 5/5 previously Ab4 infected horses and 3/5 Ab4ΔORF1/71 horses. Two Ab4ΔORF1/71 horses developed short-lasting viremia and/or virus shedding. Protective immunity in the respiratory tract was characterized by pre-existing EHV-1-specific IgG4/7 antibodies, the absence of IFN-α secretion and rapidly increasing IgG4/7 upon challenge infection. Pre-existing systemic EHV-1-specific IgG4/7 highly correlated with protection. T-cell immunity was overall low. In conclusion, protective immunity against EHV-1 infection including prevention of viremia was associated with robust systemic and intranasal IgG4/7 antibodies suggesting immediate virus neutralization at the local site.
This article was published in the following journal.
The equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) ORF1 and ORF71 genes have immune modulatory effects in vitro. Experimental infection of horses using virus mutants with multiple deletions including ORF1 and ORF7...
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Techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY REACTIONS, serologic cross-reactivity, DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY reactions, IMMUNIZATION, or heterogenetic responses.
A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
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