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In the theory of visual attention (TVA), it is suggested that objects in a visual scene compete for representation in a visual short-term memory (vSTM) store. The race towards the store is assumed to be biased by top-down controlled weighting of the objects according to their task relevance. Only objects that reach the store before its capacity limitation is reached are represented consciously in a given instant. TVA-based computational modeling of participants' performance in whole- and partial-report tasks permits independent parameters of individual efficiency of top-down control α and vSTM storage capacity K to be extracted. The neural interpretation of the TVA proposes recurrent loops between the posterior thalamus and posterior visual cortices to be relevant for generating attentional weights for competing objects and for maintaining selected objects in vSTM. Accordingly, we tested whether structural connectivity between posterior thalamus and occipital cortices (PT-OC) is associated with estimates of top-down control and vSTM capacity. We applied whole- and partial-report tasks and probabilistic tractography in a sample of 37 healthy adults. We found vSTM capacity K to be associated with left PT-OC structural connectivity and a trend-wise relation between top-down control α and right PT-OC structural connectivity. These findings support the assumption of the relevance of thalamic structures and their connections to visual cortex for top-down control and vSTM capacity.
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Eye vergence is the slow movement of both eyes in opposite directions enabling binocular vision. Recently, it was suggested that vergence could be involved in orienting visual attention and memory hav...
It is well established that attention improves performance on many visual tasks. However, for more than 100 years, psychologists, philosophers, and neurophysiologists have debated its phenomenology-wh...
Teasing Apart Cognitive Processing from Perception to Response Selection: A Comparison of Stimulus- and Response-locked Event-related Potentials Related to Attention and Short-term Memory during Visual Search.
We explored the flow of information during visual search by examining activity indexing visual attention (N2pc) and the subsequent processing of the selected objects in visual short-term memory (SPCN)...
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the slower response to a target appearing at a previously attended location in a cue-target paradigm. It has been greatly explored in the visual or auditory modali...
Recent progress has been made in using attention based encoder-decoder framework for image and video captioning. Most existing decoders apply the attention mechanism to every generated word including ...
This project studies memory and attention in healthy children aged from 5 to 17 years. The processes investigated are short term memory (auditory and visual) and attention. To characteriz...
The objective of this pilot work is to determine the role of central and peripheral visions in explicit attention processes (saccade planning) in the case of visual impairment.
Improved Assessment of Visual Field Change is a trial aimed at investigating mechanisms of visual field testing variability. We have found using larger stimulus size substantially lowers s...
This study will investigate the effect of enhanced visual and cross-modal environments upon the visual attentiveness of multiply handicapped children diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and...
The purpose of this study is to provide information about how the brain processes sensory inputs using visual stimuli throughout various psychophysical experiments.
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions. Visual disability refers to inability of the individual to perform specific visual tasks, such as reading, writing, orientation, or traveling unaided. (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132)
Repetitive visual hallucinations experienced mostly by elderly with diminished visual acuity or visual field loss, with awareness of the fictional nature of their hallucinations. It is not associated with delusions and other sensory hallucinations.