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Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a major, recently recognized component of innate immunity. The intestinal AP (IAP) isoform plays a pivotal role in controlling gastrointestinal and systemic inflammation in terrestrial mammals. This is so essentially through detoxification (by dephosphorylation) of proinflammatory microbial components that can no longer be recognized by so-called toll-like receptors, thus preventing cellular inflammatory cascade activation. A unique feature of fish is the presence of AP in skin and epidermal mucus (skin mucus AP) but its actual functions and underlying mechanisms of action are presently unknown. Here, we gather and analyse knowledge available on skin mucus AP in order to provide a holistic view of this important protective enzyme. Our main conclusions are that skin mucus AP is responsive to biotic and abiotic factors, including nutrients and bioactive feed components, prebiotics and probiotics. Importantly, both skin mucus AP and IAP appear to correlate, thus raising the interesting possibility that skin mucus AP be used as a proxy for IAP in future nutritional studies. Blood serum AP also seems to correlate with skin mucus AP, though biological interpretation for such relationship is presently unknown. Finally, the precise isoform/s of AP present in skin should be identified and underlying molecular mechanisms of skin mucus AP actions deciphered.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Fish & shellfish immunology
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The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of ~45 nm nanoplastics (NPs) on the marine fish Dicentrarchus labrax after a short-term exposure. Animals were exposed to a concentration range of NPs...
A two-month study was conducted to determine the influence of different levels of microbial lysozyme (LZ) contents (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g kg of diet) on growth performance, serum and skin mucus i...
Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) contains two types-bone- and liver-type-which are produced from the same gene due to differences in splicing. These two differ in their promoter, but ...
The present study aimed at evaluation of possible effects of Psidium guajava as immunostimulant on mucosal and serum immunity, as well as related genes expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fing...
Alkaline phosphatase is known to be produced by syncytiotrophoblasts in the placenta and its levels are normally increased in pregnancy. Therefore, it would be reasonable to hypothesize th...
Background : Chronic histiocytic intervillositis is a rare placental disease linked with poor perinatal outcome. In a recent study, a major antenatal increased alkaline phosphatase was sus...
Septic shock is the most common cause of death in patients requiring intensive care. The kidney is one of the first organs to fail, stressing the importance to search for clinical interven...
Study should demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase reduces the incidence and extent of acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) as defined by the AKIN criteria.
Eligible patients will receive either AP or matching placebo in a double blind, randomized design and following a 2:1 ratio. All medication will be given in addition to standard care for s...
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC 18.104.22.168); at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC 22.214.171.124). EC 126.96.36.199.
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 188.8.131.52.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
One of four major classes of mammalian serine/threonine specific protein phosphatases. Protein phosphatase 2C is a monomeric enzyme about 42 kDa in size. It shows broad substrate specificity dependent on divalent cations (mainly manganese and magnesium). Three isozymes are known in mammals: PP2C -alpha, -beta and -gamma. In yeast, there are four PP2C homologues: phosphatase PTC1 that have weak tyrosine phosphatase activity, phosphatase PTC2, phosphatase PTC3, and PTC4. Isozymes of PP2C also occur in Arabidopsis thaliana where the kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP) containing a C-terminal PP2C domain, dephosphorylates Ser/Thr receptor-like kinase RLK5.
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