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Honey bees (Apis mellifera) research has increased in light of their progressive global decline over the last decade and the important role they play in pollination. One expanding area of honey bee research is analysis of their microbial community including viruses. Several RNA viruses have been characterized but little is known about DNA viruses associated with bees. Here, using a metagenomics based approach, we reveal the presence of a broad range of novel single-stranded DNA viruses from the hemolymph and brain of nurse and forager (worker divisions of labour) bees belonging to two honey bees subspecies, Italian (Apis mellifera linguistica) and New World Carniolan (Apis mellifera carnica). Genomes of 100 diverse viruses were identified, designated into three groupings; genomoviruses (family Genomoviridae) (n = 4), unclassified replication associated protein encoding single-stranded DNA viruses (n = 28), and microviruses (family Microviridae; subfamily Gokushovirinae) (n = 70). Amongst the viruses identified, it appears that nurses harbour a higher diversity of these viruses comparative to the foragers. Between subspecies, the most striking outcome was the extremely high number of diverse microviruses identified in the Italian bees comparative to the New World Carniolan, likely indicating an association to the diversity of the bacterial community associated with these subspecies.
This article was published in the following journal.
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A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
An APOBEC deaminase that functions as an inhibitor of RETROVIRIDAE replication and inhibits the mobility of RETROTRANSPOSONS via deaminase-dependent and independent mechanisms. It is selective for SINGLE-STRANDED DNA and does not deaminate double-stranded DNA or single or DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It exhibits potent antiviral activity against VIF PROTEIN deficient HIV-1 through the creation of hypermutations in the VIRAL DNA. It also has anti-viral activity against SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES and HEPATITIS B VIRUS.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
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