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Daily expression of a clock gene in the brain and pituitary of the Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus).

08:00 EDT 27th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Daily expression of a clock gene in the brain and pituitary of the Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus)."

Recent studies have revealed that, in addition to regulating the circadian system, clock genes such as cryptochrome (Cry) genes are involved in seasonal and lunar rhythmicity in fish. This study clarified the transcriptional characteristics of a Cry subtype (mgCry2) in the brain of the Malabar grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, which is an important aquaculture species that spawns around the new moon. The cDNA sequence of mgCry2 showed high identity (97-99%) with fish Cry2 and had an open reading frame encoding a protein with 170 amino acids. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that mgCRY2 had high identity with CRY in other fish species. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed the widespread distribution of mgCry2 in neural (brain, pituitary, and retina) and peripheral (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, intestine, and ovary) tissues. When immature Malabar groupers were reared under a light-dark cycle (LD = 12:12) and the amounts of mgCry2 mRNA in the telencephalon and diencephalon were measured at 4-h intervals, the levels increased during photophase and decreased during scotophase. Day-night variation in mgCry2 mRNA abundance was also observed in the pituitary. These daily profiles suggest that mgCry2 is a light-responsive gene in neural tissues. In situ hybridization analyses showed that mgCry2 was strongly transcribed in the nucleus lateralis tuberis of the ventral hypothalamus, peripheral area of the proximal pars distalis, and the pars intermedia of the pituitary. We conclude that clock genes expressed in the pituitary and diencephalon play a role in entraining the endocrine network of the Malabar grouper to periodic changes in external cues.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: General and comparative endocrinology
ISSN: 1095-6840
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.

The expression of a gene in an abnormal place, or at an abnormal time in an organism. Ectopic Gene Expression is often induced artificially by genetic techniques.

A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.

A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that positively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and is a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The protein also has a role in neuron cell survival and differentiation in that loss of function mutations of its gene result in the mouse phenotype referred to as the STAGGERER MOUSE.

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