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Epidemiological evidence showed that the particulate matter exposure is associated with atherosclerotic plaque progression, which may be related to foam cell formation, but the mechanism is still unknown. The study was aimed to investigate the toxic effects and possible mechanism of PM on the formation of macrophage foam cells induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Results showed that PM induced cytotoxicity by decreasing the cell viability and increasing the LDH level in macrophage foam cells. PM aggravated the lipid accumulation in ox-LDL-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 within markedly increasing level of intracellular lipid by Oil red O staining. The level of ROS increased obivously after co-exposure to PM and ox-LDL than single exposure group. In addition, serious mitochondrial damage such as the mitochondrial swelling, cristae rupturing and disappearance were observed in macrophage foam cells. The loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) further exacerbated the mitochondrial damage in PM-induced macrophage foam cells. The apoptotic rate increased more severely via up-regulated protein level of Bax, Cyt C, Caspase-9, Caspase-3, and down-regulated that of Bcl-2, indicating that PM activated the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway. In summary, our results demonstrated that PM aggravated the lipid accumulation, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in macrophage foam cells, suggesting that PM was a risk factor of atherosclerosis progression.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
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A family of vertebrate and insect lipid droplet associated proteins. They consist of a conserved N-terminal PAT domain (an alpha-helical region of about 110 amino acids), an 11-mer repeat region, and lipid-binding hydrophobic regions or 4-helix bundles near their C-termini. Perilipins transiently or constitutively localize to LIPID DROPLETS in ADIPOCYTES and FOAM CELLS, especially in regions adjacent to the PLASMA MEMBRANE and ENDOPLASMIC RECTICULUM. They are critical for lipid droplet synthesis and homeostasis as well as the regulation of lipid metabolism. Genetic variations in perilipins are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS; OBESITY; and DIABETES MELLITUS.
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
An index for monitoring the accumulation of lipids based on the WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE measurement and the level of TRIGLYCERIDES circulating in the blood.
A lipid droplet protein that is expressed primarily by ADIPOCYTES of WHITE ADIPOSE TISSUE and BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE. It co-localizes with MACROPHAGES and FOAM CELLS of artherosclerotic lesions and stabilizes LIPID DROPLETS by inhibiting HORMONE SENSITIVE LIPASE. It may also protect TRIGLYCERIDES against hydrolysis within the PLASMA MEMBRANE and modulate CHOLESTEROL ESTER HYDROLASE activity.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.