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We describe the recent progress of structural analysis methods exploiting paramagnetic lanthanide ions. In NMR spectroscopy, the paramagnetic effects induced by the trivalent lanthanide ions provide long-range (~40 Å) distance and angular information that can be exploited in protein structure determination, ligand screening, structure-based resonance assignment, and in-cell observation. The paramagnetic lanthanide ions can also be utilized in EPR spectroscopy, providing nanometer-scale distance measurement. These applications of the paramagnetic lanthanide probe are becoming more widespread by the use of a variety of lanthanide binding tags. Here, we introduce the basics of paramagnetic effects, several examples of lanthanide tags, and recent applications of paramagnetic lanthanide ions in NMR and EPR spectroscopy. Collectively, we show how the paramagnetic lanthanide probe accelerates research in protein science and drug design, and consequently life science.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
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