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Perfluorocarbon emulsion nanodroplets containing iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) within their inner perfluorohexane (PFH) core were prepared to investigate potential use as an acoustically activatable ultrasound contrast agent, with the hypothesis that incorporation of IONPs into the fluorous phase of a liquid perfluorocarbon emulsion would potentiate acoustic vaporization. IONPs with an oleic acid (OA) hydrophobic coating were synthesized through chemical co-precipitation. To suspend IONP in PFH, OA was exchanged with perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) via ligand exchange to yield fluorophilic PFNA-coated IONPs (PFNA-IONPs). Suspensions with various amounts of PFNA-IONPs (0-15% w/v) in PFH were emulsified in saline by sonication, using 5% (w/v) egg yolk phospholipid as an emulsifier. PFNA-IONPs were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission electron cryomicroscopy (cryoTEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). IONP were between 5 and 10 nm in diameter as measured by electron microscopy, and hydrodynamic size of the PFH nanodroplets were 150 to 230 nm as measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Acoustic droplet vaporization of PFH nanodroplets (PFH-NDs) was induced using conversion pulses (100 cycle at 1.1 MHz and 50% duty cycle) provided by a focused ultrasound transducer, and formed microbubbles were imaged using a clinical ultrasound scanner. The acoustic pressure threshold needed for PFH-NDs vaporization decreased with increasing temperature and IONP content. PFH-NDs containing 5% w/v IONP converted to microbubbles at 42 °C at 2.18 MI, which is just above the exposure limits of 1.9 MI allowed by the FDA for clinical ultrasound scanners, whereas 10 and 15% emulsion vaporized at 1.87 and 1.24 MI, respectively. Furthermore, 5% IONP-loaded PFH-NDs injected intravenously into melanoma-bearing mice at a dose of 120 mg PFH/kg, converted into detectable microbubbles in vivo 5 h, but not shortly after injection, indicating that this technique detects NDs accumulated in tumors.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
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Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism. The NANOPARTICLES; and MICROSPHERES of its mineral form, magnetite, have many biomedical applications.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...