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Chronic pressure-overload (PO)- induced cardiomyopathy is one of the leading causes of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and heart failure. The role of the α isoform of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3α) in PO-induced cardiac remodeling is unclear and its downstream molecular targets are largely unknown. To investigate the potential roles of GSK-3α, cardiomyocyte-specific GSK-3α conditional knockout (cKO) and control mice underwent trans-aortic constriction (TAC) or sham surgeries. Cardiac function in the cKOs and littermate controls declined equally up to 2 weeks of TAC. At 4 week, cKO animals retained concentric LV remodeling and showed significantly less decline in contractile function both at systole and diastole, vs. controls which remained same until the end of the study (6 wk). Histological analysis confirmed preservation of LV chamber and protection against TAC-induced cellular hypertrophy in the cKO. Consistent with attenuated hypertrophy, significantly lower level of cardiomyocyte apoptosis was observed in the cKO. Mechanistically, GSK-3α was found to regulate mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and GSK-3α-deficient mitochondria showed delayed mPTP opening in response to Ca overload. Consistently, overexpression of GSK-3α in cardiomyocytes resulted in elevated Bax expression, increased apoptosis, as well as a reduction of maximum respiration capacity and cell viability. Taken together, we show for the first time that GSK-3α regulates mPTP opening under pathological conditions, likely through Bax overexpression. Genetic ablation of cardiomyocyte GSK-3α protects against chronic PO-induced cardiomyopathy and adverse LV remodeling, and preserves contractile function. Selective inhibition of GSK-3α using isoform-specific inhibitors could be a viable therapeutic strategy to limit PO-induced heart failure.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology
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A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.
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