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HER2 status determines gastric/gastroesophageal (GEJ) adenocarcinomas that benefit from targeted therapy; hence, HER2 testing has become a routine practice. Accurate HER2 testing is fundamental to select eligible patients who will benefit from HER2 targeted treatment. Reported HER2 positive rate in gastric/GEJ cancers ranges from 4.4% to 53.4% and HER2-positive tumors are considered to have more aggressive biological behavior and tumor recurrence. Main modalities of HER2 testing in clinical practice include immunohistochemistry (IHC) for protein expression and in-situ hybridization (ISH) for gene amplification. There are many technical pitfalls which affect the accuracy of HER2 result. Additionally, there are several issues in HER2 testing related to the tumor biology, sample selection, interpretation of IHC and ISH results, and finally confirming the HER2 status. Therefore, gastric/GEJ adenocarcinoma specific HER2 testing protocols have been developed and standardized to minimize the impact of these pre-analytical and analytical factors, and to enhance reproducibility of HER 2 testing results. This review provides up to date practical guidance to clinicians on accurate HER2 testing and interpretation of results in gastric/gastro esophageal junction adenocarcinoma.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Gastrointestinal endoscopy
Esophageal and gastric tumors are very lethal malignancies. Their most common histology is adenocarcinoma for more than 90% of all gastroesophageal tumors.
Akt activation is common in gastric/gastroesophageal junction cancer (GC/GEJC) and is associated with chemotherapy resistance. Treatment with ipatasertib, a pan-Akt inhibitor, may potentiate the effic...
Avelumab is a human anti-PD-L1 IgG1 monoclonal antibody that has shown antitumor activity in early phase studies in advanced/metastatic gastric/gastroesophageal junction cancer, including as first-lin...
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is expressed in some gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas. There were two goals: assess the impact of specimen type on HER2 status and ...
Patients with proximal gastric carcinoma undergo total gastrectomy with concomitant splenectomy to ensure the complete removal of splenic hilar lymph nodes. However, the impact of splenectomy on survi...
This is a Phase 2, multi-cohort study to investigate safety, PK, and preliminary anti-tumor activity of the monoclonal antibody BGB A317 in combination with standard chemotherapy as first-...
This is a single-arm clinical trial.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Raltitrexed and Paclitaxel as second-line chemotherapy for patients with unresectabl...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of pembrolizumab (MK-3745) in the neoadjuvant (prior to surgery) or adjuvant (after surgery) treatment of adults with gastric and gast...
This is a randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 study designed to compare the efficacy and safety of tislelizumab or placebo plus chemotherapy as first-line (1L) ther...
This study is designed to gather epidemiological data in Korea on HER2 incidence in gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer as assessed by local laboratories in a real-life setting. N...
Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.
That portion of the stomach remaining after gastric surgery, usually gastrectomy or gastroenterostomy for cancer of the stomach or peptic ulcer. It is a common site of cancer referred to as stump cancer or carcinoma of the gastric stump.
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX wherein the retrograde flow passes through the UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER
The physiologic or functional barrier to GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX at the esophagogastric junction. Sphincteric muscles remain tonically contracted during the resting state and form the high-pressure zone separating the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS from that of the STOMACH. (Haubrich et al, Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed., pp399, 415)
Back flow of gastric contents to the LARYNGOPHARYNX where it comes in contact with tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract. Laryngopharyngeal reflux is an extraesophageal manifestation of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...