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Both sphingomyelinase and Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship between the two molecules remains unclear. In this study, using WT and TLR4-deficient mice, treated or not with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), we aimed to investigate the relation between TLR4 and neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) in the midbrain. We found that the lack of TLR4 caused increase in nSMase protein expression and enzyme activity in the midbrain, as well as a marked delocalization from the cell membranes. This provoked a decrease in sphingomyelin (SM) species and an increase in ceramide levels. We found that exposure of TLR4-deficient mice to MPTP reduces unsaturated SM species by increasing saturated/unsaturated SM ratio. Saturated fatty acid make SM more rigid and could contribute to reducing neural plasticity. In this study we showed that the absence of TLR4 also induced reduction of both heavy neurofilaments and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and and mice exhibited higher sensitivity to MPTP administration. We speculated about the possible association between nSMase-TLR4 complex and MPTP midbrain damage. Taken together, our findings provide for the first time indications about the role of TLR4 in change of SM metabolism in MPTP neurotoxicity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators
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A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 2.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with TLR2 RECEPTOR. The complex interacts with a variety of ligands including LIPOPROTEINS from MYCOPLASMA.
A pattern recognition receptor that is expressed in LUNG and in B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...