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Attributes of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages.

08:00 EDT 27th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Attributes of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages."

Macrophages are cells of innate immunity and are derived from circulating monocytes and embryonic yolk sac. They exhibit high plasticity and polarize functionally in response to stimulus triggering it into classically activated M1 macrophages and alternatively activated M2 macrophages. This review summarizes markers of M2 macrophages like transmembrane surface receptors and signaling cascades initiated on their activation; cytokine and chemokine repertoires along with their receptors; and genetic markers and their involvement in immunomodulation. The detailed discussion emphasizes the role of these markers in imparting functional benefits to this subset of macrophages which define their venture in various physiological and pathological conditions.

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Name: Life sciences
ISSN: 1879-0631
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A membrane bound member of the TNF superfamily that is expressed on activated B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; and DENDRITIC CELLS. The ligand is specific for the 4-1BB RECEPTOR and may play a role in inducing the proliferation of activated peripheral blood T-LYMPHOCYTES.

Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary THYMOCYTES; GRANULOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. Their interaction with HYALURONIC ACID mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial VENULES.

Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)

CXCR receptors that are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL16. They are expressed by lymphoid tissues, activated T-cells, and also function as co-receptors for SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES; HIV-2; and HIV-1 infection of MACROPHAGES.

A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member that is expressed on activated antigen-presenting cells such as B-LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES. It signals T-LYMPHOCYTES by binding the OX40 RECEPTOR.

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