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Macrophages are cells of innate immunity and are derived from circulating monocytes and embryonic yolk sac. They exhibit high plasticity and polarize functionally in response to stimulus triggering it into classically activated M1 macrophages and alternatively activated M2 macrophages. This review summarizes markers of M2 macrophages like transmembrane surface receptors and signaling cascades initiated on their activation; cytokine and chemokine repertoires along with their receptors; and genetic markers and their involvement in immunomodulation. The detailed discussion emphasizes the role of these markers in imparting functional benefits to this subset of macrophages which define their venture in various physiological and pathological conditions.
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Name: Life sciences
PGGFRα preadipocytes are the major subpopulations that can regenerate into adipocytes. Two different types of macrophages exist in the fat tissue: the classically activated macrophage (M1) and the al...
Macrophages, as crucial cellular components of innate immunity, are characterized by possessing high plasticity and an abnormal ability to differentiate in response to numerous stimuli. Given this, ma...
Macrophages are a group of immune cells with pluripotency and plasticity that can differentiate into different phenotypes under different microenvironments in vitro and in vivo. In the development of ...
Initiation of the innate sterile inflammatory response that can develop in response to microparticle exposure is little understood. Here, we report that a potent type 2 immune response associated wi...
Do exosomes play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis in a murine model?
Accumulating evidence suggests that the peritoneal microenvironment of women affected by endometriosis undergoes a number of local inflammatory-reparative phenomena, with the involvement o...
Chronic anal fissure is a linear tear in the distal anal canal. Most chronic fissures require intervention to heal. Surgical sphincterotomy is currently performed. However, the procedure p...
This study consists of an analysis of the communication styles and attitudes towards risk and uncertainty (i.e. non-technical attributes) in a surgical population with varying clinical exp...
The primary objective of this study is to measure the concentration and the regional brain distribution of activated brain microglia/macrophages using the PET radiopharmaceutical [18F]DPA-...
The primary objective of this substudy is to measure the concentration and the regional brain distribution of activated brain microglia/macrophages using the PET ligand [18F]DPA-714 in par...
A membrane bound member of the TNF superfamily that is expressed on activated B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; and DENDRITIC CELLS. The ligand is specific for the 4-1BB RECEPTOR and may play a role in inducing the proliferation of activated peripheral blood T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary THYMOCYTES; GRANULOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. Their interaction with HYALURONIC ACID mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial VENULES.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
CXCR receptors that are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL16. They are expressed by lymphoid tissues, activated T-cells, and also function as co-receptors for SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES; HIV-2; and HIV-1 infection of MACROPHAGES.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member that is expressed on activated antigen-presenting cells such as B-LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES. It signals T-LYMPHOCYTES by binding the OX40 RECEPTOR.
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...
Cytokine Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)
TNF is a compound that is classified as a cytokine which plays a central role in the cellular mechanisms of apoptosis or cell death. However, there are a number of different kinds of TNF, just under twenty, but the family of molecules have very similar a...
Cytokines include chemokines, lymphokines, and monokines. Cells of the immune system communicate with one another by releasing and responding to chemical messengers called cytokines. These proteins are secreted by immune cells and act on other cells to...