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Didymin is a naturally occurring orally active flavonoid glycoside (isosakuranetin 7-O-rutinoside) found in various citrus fruits, which has been previously reported to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities including anticancer, antioxidant, antinociceptive, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, inflammatory, and cardiovascular. However, there have not been any reports concerning its anti-diabetic potential until now. Therefore, we evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of didymin via inhibition of α-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), human recombinant AR (HRAR), and advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation inhibitory assays. Didymin strongly inhibited PTP1B, α-glucosidase, HRAR, RLAR, and AGE in the corresponding assays. Kinetic study revealed that didymin exhibited a mixed type inhibition against α-glucosidase and HRAR, while it competitively inhibited PTP1B and RLAR. Docking simulations of didymin demonstrated negative binding energies and close proximity to residues in the binding pocket of HRAR, RLAR, PTP1B and α-glucosidase, indicating that didymin have high affinity and tight binding capacity towards the active site of these enzymes. Furthermore, we also examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effects of didymin in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells which significantly increased glucose uptake and decreased the expression of PTP1B in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. In addition, didymin activated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 by increasing phosphorylation at tyrosine 895 and enhanced the phosphorylations of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and glycogen synthasekinase-3(GSK-3). The results of the present study clearly demonstrated that didymin will be useful for developing multiple target-oriented therapeutic modalities for treatment of diabetes, and diabetes-associated complications.
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Name: Chemico-biological interactions
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A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. The common names of beebalm or lemonbalm are also used for MELISSA. The common name of bergamot is also used for Citrus bergamia (CITRUS).
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar lime fruit. Its common name of lime is similar to the limetree (TILIA).
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...