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Motion detection is performed by a unique neural network in the mouse retina. Starburst amacrine cells (SACs), which release acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) into the network, are key neurons in the motion detection pathway. Although GABA contributions to the network have been extensively studied, the role of acetylcholine is minimally understood. Acetylcholine receptors are present in a subset of bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells. We focused on α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) expression in bipolar cells, and investigated which types of bipolar cells possess α7-nAChRs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
CHRFAM7A is a uniquely-human gene that encodes a human-specific variant of the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR). While the homopentameric α7nAChR consists of 5 equal subunits, prev...
Fibroproliferative diseases affect a significant proportion of the world's population. Despite this, core mechanisms driving organ fibrosis of diverse etiologies remain ill defined. Recent studies sug...
Pancreatic α-cells exhibit oscillations in cytosolic Ca (Ca), which control pulsatile glucagon (GCG) secretion. However, the mechanism(s) that modulate α-cell Ca oscillations have not been elucidate...
Diabetes is a complex disease implicating several organs and cell types. Within the islets, dysregulation occurs in both alpha- and beta-cells, leading to defects of insulin secretion and increased gl...
The role of brain cell-type-specific functions and profiles in pathological and non-pathological contexts is still poorly defined. Such cell-type-specific gene expression profiles in solid, adult tiss...
Dendritic cells or "DCs" are special white blood cells that stimulate the immune system. This study is being done to test the feasibility, safety and efficacy of a specific type of dendrit...
The purpose of this study is to determine expression of chaperones proteins from the endoplasmatic reticulum stress response system in bipolar I patients (manic phase) compared to healthy ...
Glucagon-like peptide 1 is known to improve sensitivity of the pancreatic beta-cell. Further it inhibit secretion from the pancreatic alpha-cell by mechanisms not fully understand. With th...
The study will be a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-center, 2 treatment, 3-way crossover. Subjects will be randomly allocated to a treatment sequence – AAB, ABA or...
This study investigates the effects of Lithium treatment on signal transduction pathways, gene expression and brain neurochemistry and structure in patients with Bipolar disorder. It is hy...
The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for nicotine over muscarine. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, molecular biology, and biophysical properties of the channels.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
Depression is a serious mental health condition, where sad feelings carry on for weeks or months and interfere with your life. The symptoms include feeling unhappy most of the time (but may feel a little better in the evenings), loosing interest in lif...
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. Over half of Bipolar cases develops before the age of 25. Bipolar ...