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Prophages are commonly found in Listeria genomes, potentially enhancing survival or fitness of Listeria spp. Currently, there is still limited information on the distribution of prophages among Listeria isolates of different allelic types and from various sources. In this study, by using mitomycin C induction, prophages were found in 23/144 isolates (16.0%), including 13 L. monocytogenes and 10 Listeria spp. isolates, resulting in 28 and 11 induced phages, respectively. These prophage-carrying isolates (lysogens) were obtained from foods and food-related environments presenting 3 common allelic types (ATs) of L. monocytogenes (lineage I, II and IV), 4 ATs of L. innocua and 1 AT of L. welshimeri. The likelihood of prophage-carrying isolates of L. monocytogenes was 14.4 (95%
4.9-35.4), and 18.5 (95%
4.8-50.2) for Listeria spp. The 39 induced phages were classified into 3 lysis groups by the host range test against 9 major serotypes of L. monocytogenes and 5 species of Listeria. Most phages were host-specific with higher ability to lyse L. monocytogenes serotype 4 than other serotypes. The genome size of phages ranged from 35±2 kb to 50±2 kb and belonged to two common phage families, Myoviridae and Siphoviridae. Restriction analysis classified 19 selected phages into 16 restriction profiles, suggesting highly diverse prophages with at least 16 types. This may contribute to the variation in the genomes of Listeria. Information obtained here provides basic knowledge for further study to understand the overall role of prophages in Listeria, including roles in survival or fitness in foods and food processing environments.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
We present the LiSEQ (Listeria SEQuencing) project, funded by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) to compare Listeria monocytogenes isolates collected in the European Union from ready-to-eat foods,...
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A cluster of chemical dependencies to specific foods or food in general in which there develops a physical craving for these foods.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
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Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
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Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...