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The toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum is widely distributed in cosmopolitan estuaries and is responsible for massive fish mortality worldwide. Intraspecific biodiversity is important for the spread to various habitats, interspecific competition to dominate a population, and bloom formation and density maintenance. Strategies for light adaptation may help determine the ecological niches of different ecotypes. However, the mechanism of phenotypic biodiversity is still unclear. In this study, intraspecific differences in genetic regulatory mechanisms in response to varied light intensities and qualities were comparatively researched on two different strains isolated from coastal areas of the East China Sea, namely, GM2 and GM3. In GM2, the expression of genes in the Calvin cycle, namely, rbcL and SBPase, and a light-related gene that correlated with cellular motility, rhodopsin, were significantly inhibited under high light intensities. Thus, this strain was adapted to low light. In contrast, the gene expression levels were promoted by high light conditions in GM3. These upregulated genes in the GM3 strain probably compensated for the negative effects on the maximum quantum yields of PSII (Fv/Fm) under high light stress, which inhibited both strains, enabling GM3 to maintain a constant growth rate. Thus, this strain was adapted to high light. Compared with white light, monochromatic blue light had negative effects on Fv/Fm and the relative electron transfer rate (ETR) in both strains. Under blue light, gene expression levels of rbcL and SBPase in GM2 were inhibited; in contrast, the levels of these genes, especially rbcL, were promoted in GM3. rbcL was significantly upregulated in the blue light groups. Monochromatic red light promoted rhodopsin gene expression in the two strains in a similar manner. These intraspecific diverse responses to light play important roles in the motor characteristics, diel vertical migration, interspecific relationships and photosynthetic or phagotrophic activities of K. veneficum and can determine the population distribution, population maintenance and bloom formation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology
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The expression of a gene in an abnormal place, or at an abnormal time in an organism. Ectopic Gene Expression is often induced artificially by genetic techniques.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...