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The granule-based partial-denitrification (PD) reactor can achieve an efficient nitrite production for anammox process. In this study, the PD granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), the physicochemical properties and microbial activities were characterized at increasing nitrate loading rate (NLR). Results indicated that high NLR benefited the PD for nitrite production, and a more dense and compact granule can be developed at the NLR of 0.24-0.48 Kg N/m/d. Whereas the settling ability decreased when the NLR increased to 0.96 Kg N/m/d, which was likely caused by the decrease of proteins (PN) in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content and the increase of loosely bound EPS (L-EPS) fraction. Besides, the characterization of size-fractionated PD granules revealed that a better settling ability was generally obtained with larger granules except for the size of d > 3.35 mm, which the settling velocity was reduced, likely attributed to the excess L-EPS fraction (56.3%) and presence of empty capsule inside granules. The smaller granules exhibited higher microbial activities due to the favorable mass transfer, the nitrate reduction rate was as high as 152.6 mg N/h/g VSS with granules of d < 1.0 mm. Results obtained in this study provided a better understanding of the properties of PD granules and would be helpful for the future development of granule-based PD reactor in achieving an efficient and stable nitrite production.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
An IRON-containing protein that uses siroheme and 4Fe-4S iron-sulfur centers as prosthetic groups. It catalyzes the six-electron oxidation of AMMONIA to nitrite.
An enzyme found primarily in BACTERIA and FUNGI that catalyzes the oxidation of ammonium hydroxide to nitrite. It is an iron-sulfur HEME; FLAVOPROTEIN containing siroheme and can utilize both NAD and NADP as cofactors. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 184.108.40.206.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...