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The baseline performance of two full-scale vertical flow (VF) constructed wetlands operating in the arid climate of Jordan is presented in this study, within the context of the Jordanian Standards for reuse of treated wastewater. One system was a recirculating VF wetland, and the other was a single-pass two-stage VF wetland. Operational modifications were made to each treatment system, with the aim of improving Total Nitrogen (TN) removal. For the recirculating VF system, attached-growth media was added to the recirculation tank to provide increased surface area for growth of denitrifying bacteria. The modification showed a small but significant improvement in TN removal (8 mg/L less than the baseline phase; p = 0.004). Statistical analysis showed that 30% and 4.5% of the increase in compliance with the TN limits (Class A and Class B/C, respectively) could be attributed to the modification. The two-stage VF wetland was modified with a step-feeding line that introduced carbon-rich raw wastewater to the intermediate pump shaft just upstream of the second-stage filter. The modification also resulted in a small but significant improvement in TN removal (13 mg/L less than the baseline phase; p = 0.005). The increase in compliance with the TN standard due to the modification was estimated at 20% and 22% for Class A and B/C, respectively. The simple operational modifications proved to be effective for improving total nitrogen removal in arid climate VF wetland systems.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)
Garbage, refuse, or sludge, or other discarded materials from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, and air pollution control facility that include solid, semi-solid, or contained material. It does not include materials dissolved in domestic sewage, irrigation return flows, or industrial discharges.
A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.
Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
A genus of colorless, filamentous, rod-shaped bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE, containing sulfur globules. Thiothrix species are found as components of BIOFILMS in irrigation systems and wastewater treatment plants, and in marine environments as endosymbionts.