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The effects of supplemental nitrate administered alone or with a denitrifying ruminal bacterium, designated Paenibacillus 79R4 (79R4) intentionally selected for enhanced nitrate- and nitrite-metabolizing ability, on select rumen fermentation characteristics was examined in vivo. Rumen and blood samples were collected from cannulated Holstein steers one day prior to and one day after initiation of treatments applied as three consecutive intra-ruminal administrations of nitrate, to achieve the equivalent of 83 mg sodium nitrate/kg body weight day, given alone or with the nitrite-selected 79R4 (provided to achieve 10 cells/mL rumen fluid). Results revealed a day effect on methane-producing activity, with rates of methane production by ruminal microbes being more rapid when collected one day before than one day after initiation of treatments. Nitrate-metabolizing activity of the rumen microbes was unaffected by day, treatment or their interaction. A day by treatment interaction was observed on nitrite-metabolizing activity, with rates of nitrite metabolism by rumen microbes being most rapid in populations collected one day after initiation of treatment from steers treated with nitrate plus 79R4. A day by treatment interaction was also observed on plasma methemoglobin concentrations, with concentrations being lower from steers one day after initiation of treatments than from collected one day prior to treatment initiation and concentrations being lowest in steers treated with nitrate plus 79R4. A major effect of treatment was observed on accumulations of most prominent and branched chain volatile fatty acids produced and amounts of hexose fermented in the rumen of animals administered nitrate, with concentrations being decreased in steers administered nitrate alone when compared to steers treated with nitrate plus the 79R4. These results demonstrate that the nitrite-selected Paenibacillus 79R4 may help prevent nitrite toxicity in nitrate-treated ruminants while maintaining benefits of reduced methane emissions and preventing inhibition of fermentation efficiency by the microbial ecosystem.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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A species of Paenibacillus that causes American Foulbrood, a fatal disease of honeybees (APIS) and honeybee colonies.
A species of Paenibacillus formerly classified as Bacillus polymyxa that occurs in marine sediments and soil, especially around plant roots and RHIZOMES where it performs NITROGEN FIXATION. It has activity against several species of pathogenic bacteria and produces POLYMYXINS.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
An IRON-containing protein that uses siroheme and 4Fe-4S iron-sulfur centers as prosthetic groups. It catalyzes the six-electron oxidation of AMMONIA to nitrite.
An enzyme found primarily in BACTERIA and FUNGI that catalyzes the oxidation of ammonium hydroxide to nitrite. It is an iron-sulfur HEME; FLAVOPROTEIN containing siroheme and can utilize both NAD and NADP as cofactors. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 126.96.36.199.
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