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Gold nanoparticles modulate the crosstalk between macrophages and periodontal ligament cells for periodontitis treatment.

08:00 EDT 25th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Gold nanoparticles modulate the crosstalk between macrophages and periodontal ligament cells for periodontitis treatment."

The regeneration of lost periodontal apparatus in periodontitis treatment remains a clinical challenge due to the limited regenerative capacity of cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in periodontitis condition. For periodontal tissue regeneration, it is essential to regulate the inflammatory response and the subsequent differentiation of periodontal cells under the condition due to the infectious nature of the disease. In this study, it was noted that 45 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) could exhibit significant anti-inflammatory effect and improve the periodontal inflammatory microenvironment via regulating inflammatory and regenerative cytokine production and modulating macrophage polarization, subsequently affect the differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). With the addition of direct effects of AuNPs on hPDLCs, the periodontal tissue differentiation capacity of hPDLCs in LPS-activated inflammatory macrophage-hPDLCs coculture system was significantly enhanced by the interaction between AuNPs-conditioned macrophage and AuNPs-stimulated hPDLCs. The potential therapeutic application of AuNPs in periodontal tissue regeneration and periodontitis treatment was investigated using both rat fenestration and ligature-induced periodontitis models. It was found that the treatment of 45 AuNPs showed significantly increased newly-formed periodontal attachment, bone and cementum in periodontal defect and less tissue destruction in the progression of periodontitis. This study demonstrated that 45 nm AuNPs could not only directly modulate hPDLCs, but also regulate the early inflammatory response of periodontal tissues via the regulation of macrophage phenotypes, therefore, generate a microenvironment with constraint inflammatory cytokine levels and reparative cytokines such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), leading to PDLC differentiation, periodontal tissue regeneration and the prevention of periodontitis progression.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Biomaterials
ISSN: 1878-5905
Pages: 115-132

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.

Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.

Degradation or wasting of the PERIODONTIUM tissues that may involve the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, or the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.

Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.

Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.

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