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Ammonia (NH) emissions from traffic have received particular attention in recent years because of their important contributions to the growth of secondary aerosols and the negative effects on urban air quality. However, few studies have been performed on the impacts of traffic NH emissions on adjacent soil and plants. Moreover, doubt remains over whether dry nitrogen (N) deposition still contributes a minor proportion of plant N nutrition compared with wet N deposition in urban road environments. This study investigated the δN values of road dustfall, soil, moss, camphor leaf and camphor bark samples collected along a distance gradient from the road, suggesting that samples collected near the road have significantly more positive δN values than those of remote sites. According to the SIAR model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R) applied to dustfall and moss samples from the roadside, it was found that NH from traffic exhaust (8.8 ± 7.1%) contributed much less than traffic-derived NO (52.2 ± 10.0%) and soil N (39.0 ± 13.8%) to dustfall bulk N; additionally, 68.6% and 31.4% of N in mosses near the roadside could be explained by dry N deposition (only 20.4 ± 12.5% for traffic-derived NH) and wet N deposition, respectively. A two-member mixing model was used to analyse the δN in continuously collected mature camphor leaf and camphor bark samples, which revealed a similarity of the δN values of plant-available deposited N to N-enriched traffic-derived NO-N. We concluded that a relatively high proportion of N inputs in urban road environments was contributed by traffic-related dustfall and NO rather than NH. These information provide useful insights into reducing the impacts of traffic exhaust on adjacent ecosystems and can assist policy makers in determining the reconstruction of a monitoring network for N deposition that reaches the road level.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
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Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
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