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Chronic cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a significant health concern, and the mechanism of long-term low-dose Cd exposure on bone has not been fully elucidated till date. This study aimed to assess the association between rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and long-term Cd exposure through 38-week intake of CdCl at 1 and 2 mg/kg body weight (bw). Increased gene expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and decreased gene expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) were observed. Fold change of RANKL gene expression (fold change = 1.97) and OPG gene expression (fold change = 1.72) showed statistically significant differences at dose 2 mg/kg bw. Decreased expression of key genes was observed during the early osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. The gene expression of Osterix in 1 mg/kg bw group was decreased by 3.70-fold, and the gene expressions of Osterix, Osteopontin, collagen type I alpha 2 chain (COL1a2) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) in 2 mg/kg bw group were decreased by 1.79, 1.67, 1.45 and 1.35-folds, respectively. Exposure to CdCl induced an increase in the renal Cd load, but only an adaptive response was observed, including increased expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3B and Beclin-1, autophagy receptor p62, and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), which is an inducible isoform that releases in response to stress. There were no significant changes in the urinary low molecular weight proteins including N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), β-microglobulin and albumin (U-Alb). Urinary calcium (Ca) excretion showed no increase, and no obvious renal histological changes. Taken together, these results indicated that the chronic CdCl exposure directly act on MSCs through RANKL/OPG pathway and downregulate the key genes involved in osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. The toxic effect of Cd on bone may occur in parallel to nephrotoxicity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
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Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis.
Cells that can develop into distinct mesenchymal tissue such as BONE; TENDONS; MUSCLES; ADIPOSE TISSUE; CARTILAGE; NERVE TISSUE; and BLOOD and BLOOD VESSELS.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
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The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...