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Recently, molecular dynamics simulations, from all atom and coarse grained to hybrid methods bridging the two scales, have provided exciting functional insights into class F (Frizzled and Taste2) GPCRs (about 40 members in humans). Findings include: (i) The activation of one member of the Frizzled receptors (FZD4) involves a bending of transmembrane helix TM7 far larger than that in class A GPCRs. (ii) The affinity of an anticancer drug targeting another member (Smoothened receptor) decreases in a specific drug-resistant variant, because the mutation ultimately disrupts the binding cavity and affects TM6. (iii) A novel two-state recognition mechanism explains the very large agonist diversity for at least one member of the Taste2 GPCRs, hTAS2R46.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current opinion in structural biology
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A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface receptors. They contain an extracellular cysteine-rich domain and are receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate multiple SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A Wnt protein and ligand for FRIZZLED RECEPTORS that may function as an inhibitor or activator of the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY. For example, it activates signaling in the presence of Frizzled-4 but is inhibitory when coupled with ROR2 TYROSINE KINASE. It is required for axis formation during EMBRYOGENESIS and inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of cancer cells.
A family of proteins that are key components of the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY, where they function downstream of FRIZZLED RECEPTORS. They contain an N-terminal dishevelled-AXIN PROTEIN (DIX) domain, which mediates oligomerization; a central PDZ DOMAIN which binds to the frizzled receptor; and a C-terminal DEP domain which facilitates binding to the CELL MEMBRANE. Dishevelled proteins have important functions in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and establishing CELL POLARITY.
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