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Statistically significant crystal structure and composition identification of nanocrystalline features such as nanoparticles/nanoprecipitates in materials chemistry and alloy designing using electron microscopy remains a grand challenge. In this paper, we reveal that differing crystallographic phases of nanoprecipitates in alloys can be mapped with unprecedented statistics using transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), on typical carbon-based electron-transparent samples. Using a case of multiphase, multicomponent nanoprecipitates extracted from an improved version of 9% chromium Eurofer-97 reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steel we show that TKD successfully identified more than thousand MC, MX, MC and MX (M=Fe, Cr, W, V, Ta; X = C, N) nanoprecipitates in a single scan, something that is currently unachievable using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) without incorporating a precision electron diffraction (PED) system. Precipitates as small as ∼20-25 nm were successfully phase identified by TKD. We verified the TKD phase identification using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern analysis of a few precipitates that were identified by TKD on same sample. TKD study was combined with state-of-art analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) which provided the complete crystal structure and distinct chemistries of the precipitates in the steel in a high throughput automated way. This technique should be applicable to characterizing any multiphase crystalline nanoparticles or nanomaterials. The results highlight that combining phase identification by TKD with analytical STEM and modern data analytics may open new pathways in big data material characterization at nanoscale that may be highly beneficial for characterizing existing materials and in designing new materials.
This article was published in the following journal.
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Nanometer sized fragments (the dots) of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They are brighter and more persistent than organic chemical INDICATORS. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
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Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
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