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The epigenome may be an important interface between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse outcome on human health. Many environmental pollutants deregulate gene expression and promote diseases by modulating the epigenome. Adverse epigenetic responses have been widely used for risk assessment of chemical substances. Various pollutants, including trace elements and persistent organic pollutants, have been detected frequently in the environment. Epigenetic toxicity of environmental matrices including water, air, soil, and food cannot be ignored. This review provides a comprehensive overview of epigenetic effects of pollutants and environmental matrices. We start with an overview of the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation and the effects of several types of environmental pollutants (trace elements, persistent organic pollutants, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and volatile organic pollutants) on epigenetic modulation. We then discuss the epigenetic responses to environmental water, air, and soil based on in vivo and in vitro assays. Finally, we discuss recommendations to promote the incorporation of epigenotoxicity into contamination screening and health risk assessment.
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Cell-type and cell-state specific patterns of covalent modifications on DNA and histone tails form global epigenetic profiles that enable spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. These epigenetic...
Information of an individual's epigenome can be useful in cancer screening to enable personalised decision making on participation, treatment options and further screening strategies. However, adding ...
Despite their unique histories, environments, and lifestyles, historically subjugated populations consistently show poorer health outcomes compared to the general population. The theory of historical ...
One of the newest frontiers of physical therapy is the field of epigenetics, which examines how pervasive environmental factors such as exercise regulate the expression of genes. The epigenome may be ...
Deriving human health risk estimates for environmental chemicals has traditionally relied on in vivo toxicity databases to characterize potential adverse health effects and associated dose-response re...
The purpose of this protocol is to assess whether epigenetic factors in healthy individuals make a person more or less responsive to lung inflammation following ozone exposures.
The maintenance of health and the progression of disease are associated with an individual's genetic make-up and environmental factors, including lifestyle choices (such as diet, exercise,...
An association has been suggested with several diseases including cancer and IARC has classified several pesticides as carcinogenic, probably carcinogenic. There is a need for a better cha...
Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disorder that is triggered and influenced by gene-environment interactions. Although sarcoidosis predominantly affects the lungs in most cases, ...
There is increasing evidence that exposure to environmental factors in early development is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and other common diseases. These increased diseas...
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to reduce the burden of human illness and dysfunction from environmental causes by, defining how environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and age interact to affect an individual's health. It was established in 1969.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.
Professional organization concerned with issues affecting personal and environmental health, including federal and state funding for health programs, programs related to chronic and infectious diseases, and professional education in public health.
A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. ...
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...