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Potential therapeutic roles of stem cells in ischemia-reperfusion injury.

08:00 EDT 16th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Potential therapeutic roles of stem cells in ischemia-reperfusion injury."

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/RI), produced by an initial interruption of organ blood flow and its subsequent restoration, contributes significantly to the pathophysiologies of stroke, myocardial infarction, renal I/RI, intestinal I/RI and liver I/RI, which are major causes of disability (including transplant failure) and even mortality. While the restoration of blood flow is required to restore oxygen and nutrient requirements, reperfusion often triggers local and systemic inflammatory responses and subsequently elevate the ischemic insult where the duration of ischemia determines the magnitude of I/RI damage. I/RI increases vascular leakage, changes transcriptional and cell death programs, drives leukocyte entrapment and inflammation and oxidative stress in tissues. Therapeutic approaches which reduce complications associated with I/RI are desperately needed to address the clinical and economic burden created by I/RI. Stem cells (SC) represent ubiquitous and uncommitted cell populations with the ability to self-renew and differentiate into one or more developmental 'fates'. Like immune cells, stem cells can home to and penetrate I/R-injured tissues, where they can differentiate into target tissues and induce trophic paracrine signaling which suppress injury and maintain tissue functions perturbed by ischemia-reperfusion. This review article summarizes the present use and possible protective mechanisms underlying stem cell protection in diverse forms of ischemia-reperfusion.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Stem cell research
ISSN: 1876-7753
Pages: 101421

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.

Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.

Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.

Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.

Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.

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