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Reinforcer pathology theory stipulates that individuals with both (a) high preference for smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards; and (b) high demand for unhealthy commodities are uniquely susceptible to poor health outcomes. Specifically, two behavioral economic tasks (delay discounting, assessing preference for smaller, immediate or larger, delayed rewards; and purchasing, assessing purchases of commodities over changes in price) have been independently associated with conditions such as overweight/obesity and problem substance use. In the present study, we examined possible shared neural regions involved in the processes of delay discounting and demand for snack foods in a prediabetic sample. Fifty-four participants completed both of these tasks. Conjunction between delay discounting and purchasing task results indicates substantial common neural substrates recruited during these two tasks, consistent with interpretations of executive control, interoception, and attention, in the prefrontal cortex, insula, and frontoparietal cortex (superior/middle frontal cortex and superior/inferior parietal lobules), respectively. Collectively, these results suggest possible neural substrates in which the two behavioral risk factors of reinforcer pathology may interact during real-world decision-making in prediabetes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain and cognition
Delay discounting, or the process by which reinforcers lose value with delay to their receipt, has been identified as a trans-disease process underlying addiction, other disorders, and maladaptive hea...
Previous research suggests that the relationship between the multiple aspects of children's impulsivity, eating behaviour and adiposity may depend on measures used. Fifty 7-11-year-olds (28 female, 22...
Adolescence is a period when impulsive decision making may be especially vulnerable to environmental influences. Impulsive decision making is often assessed using a delay discounting paradigm, which m...
Separate studies have shown increased delay discounting in people with bipolar disorder (BD) and people with alcohol dependence (AD) relative to people without mental health problems. Compared delay d...
Behavioral impulsivity may be a mechanism of hoarding disorder (HD). A commonly used and well-validated measure of impulsivity is the delay and probability discounting task, which consists of making d...
The proposed research will translate research on delay discounting to the prevention of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in persons with prediabetes. In this study, the investigators will verify targ...
The primary objective of this study is to determine the effects of different methods of broccoli preparation on levels of urinary glucosinolate metabolites. The secondary objective is to d...
One factor that limits the effectiveness of adjuvant hormone therapy for breast cancer is medication nonadherence. Adherence to long-term medication regimens requires valuation of temporal...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of replacing usual snacks with alternative snack foods on gut health in a population of habitual snackers with low fibre intake.
Many health-relevant decisions involve intertemporal (now vs. later) tradeoffs. Extensive literature indicates that many negative health and financial consequences suffered in mid-life are...
The tendency to devalue an outcome as a function of its temporal delay or probability of achievement. It can be evaluated in a psychological paradigm that involves the choice between receiving a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward, and may be used to provide a measure of impulsive behavior.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
The application of pathology to questions of law.
A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.
Obesity is the condition in which excess fat has accumulated in the body (mostly in subcutaneous tissues). clinical obesity is considered to be present when a person has a BMI of over 30 (Oxford Dictionary of Medicine). It is becoming increasing common i...
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