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Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using oligonucleotides is a simple and convenient method for chromosome research. In this study, 34 of 46 previously developed oligonucleotides produced signals in barley. Together with two plasmid clones and one PCR-amplified cereal centromere repeat (CCS1) probe, 37 repetitive sequences were chromosomally located produced three types of signals covering different positions on the chromosomes. The centromeric and pericentric regions had a more complex genomic organization and sequence composition probably indicative of higher contents of heterochromatin. An efficient multiplex probe containing eight oligonucleotides and a plasmid clone of 45S rDNA was developed. Thirty-three barley karyotypes were developed and compared. Among them, 11 irradiation-induced mutants of cultivar 08-49 showed no chromosomal variation, whereas 22 cultivar and landrace accessions contained 28 chromosomal polymorphisms. Chromosome 4H was the most variable and 6H was the least variable based on chromosome polymorphic information content (CPIC). Five polymorphic chromosomes (1H-2, 2H-1, 3H-3, 5H-2 and 6H-2) were dominant types, each occurring in more than 50% of accessions. The multiplex probe should facilitate identification of further chromosomal polymorphisms in barley.
This article was published in the following journal.
B chromosomes have been reported in many eukaryotic organisms. These chromosomes occur in addition to the standard complement of a species. Bs do not pair with any of the A chromosomes and they have g...
Statistical analysis of the chromosomal composition in a population of 210 primary plants regenerated from two intergeneric wheat-barley cross combinations revealed the random nature of uniparental el...
Major resistance gene to rhynchosporium, Rrs18, maps close to the telomere on the short arm of chromosome 6H in barley. Rhynchosporium or barley scald caused by a fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commun...
The majority of human chromosome ends remain incompletely assembled due to their highly repetitive structure. In this study, we use BioNano data to anchor and extend chromosome ends from two European ...
In the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), sex is determined by a single Mendelian factor, yet its sex chromosomes do not exhibit morphological differentiation typical of many vertebrate taxa that ...
The purpose of this research was to investigate 5 different formulations of whole grain barley and refined white rice against a control of white bread on post-prandial glycemic response, a...
Protein is the key determinant of growth and bodily functions. The quality of food proteins depend on their amino acid content and the amount of amino acids used by the body to make protei...
The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic effects of consuming whole barley bread and whole wheat bread, in healthy subjects. Also, to investigate the effect of whole grain flour ...
The Question posed is: Does an barley protein concentrate have health benefits similar to those demonstrated for soy protein foods which would justify the use of the non-fiber components o...
The interventional study will evaluate the effects of a regularly consumption of barley and oat flakes in crude and roasted form on the glucose and lipid metabolism as well as the postpran...
A region of DNA that is highly polymorphic and is prone to strand breaks, rearrangements or other MUTATIONS because of the nature of its sequence. These regions often harbor palindromic, or repetitive sequences (REPETITIVE SEQUENCES, NUCLEIC ACID). Variability in stability of the DNA sequence is seen at CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...