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Building more open-ended evolutionary systems can simultaneously advance our understanding of biology, artificial life, and evolutionary computation. In order to do so, however, we need a way to determine when we are moving closer to this goal. We propose a set of metrics that allow us to measure a system's ability to produce commonly-agreed-upon hallmarks of open-ended evolution: change potential, novelty potential, complexity potential, and ecological potential. Our goal is to make these metrics easy to incorporate into a system, and comparable across systems so that we can make coherent progress as a field. To this end, we provide detailed algorithms (including C++ implementations) for these metrics that should be easy to incorporate into existing artificial life systems. Furthermore, we expect this toolbox to continue to grow as researchers implement these metrics in new languages and as the community reaches consensus about additional hallmarks of open-ended evolution. For example, we would welcome a measurement of a system's potential to produce major transitions in individuality. To confirm that our metrics accurately measure the hallmarks we are interested in, we test them on two very different experimental systems: NK landscapes and the Avida digital evolution platform. We find that our observed results are consistent with our prior knowledge about these systems, suggesting that our proposed metrics are effective and should generalize to other systems.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Artificial life
Nature's spectacular inventiveness, reflected in the enormous diversity of form and function displayed by the biosphere, is a feature of life that distinguishes living most strongly from nonliving. It...
We document and discuss two different modes of evolution across multiple systems, optimization and expansion. The former suffices in systems whose size and interactions do not change substantially ove...
Open-endedness is often considered a prerequisite property of the whole evolutionary system and its dynamical behaviors. In the actual history of evolution on Earth, however, there are many examples s...
The field of miniature mechanical oscillators is rapidly evolving, with emerging applications including signal processing, biological detection and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. As the dimen...
We detect ongoing innovation in empirical data about human technological innovations. Ongoing technological innovation is a form of open-ended evolution, but it occurs in a nonbiological, cultural pop...
The American Cancer Society and The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in collaboration with The National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable published "How to Increase Colorectal Cancer ...
Nicotine is the most common drug of abuse in the United States, and has addiction strength comparable to cocaine, heroin, and alcohol. It is the primary addictive component of tobacco, and...
Participants will perform blood glucose monitoring (BGM) over the course of 14 days and, in parallel, wear continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems. Because current CGM systems typicall...
An individual senses the world and reflects feedbacks via independent behaviors. Such precise collaboration of the sensory and behavioral systems is fundamental to survival and evolution. ...
To explore and illuminate the cultural, social, and psychological factors that either facilitate or serve as barriers to behavioral change in angioplasty patients. Through a series of ope...
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
It is a client-centered, directive method for eliciting intrinsic motivation to change using open-ended questions, reflective listening, and decisional balancing. This nonjudgmental, nonconfrontational interviewing style is designed to minimize a patient's resistance to change by creating an interaction that supports open discussion of risky or problem behavior.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.
Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.