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This study was designed to evaluate the possible mechanisms through which Echinops spinosus (ES) extract demonstrates nephroprotective effect on the paracetamol acetominophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP)) induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Twenty-four Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups (six rats each). The placebo group was orally administered sterile saline, the APAP group received APAP (200 mg·kg·day i.p.) daily, the ES group was given ES extract orally (250 mg/kg), and the APAP + ES group received APAP as for the APAP group and administrated the ES extract as for the ES group. Pretreatment of methyl alcohol extract of ES reduced the protein expression of inflammatory parameters including cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor κB in the kidney. It also reduced the mRNA gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. The ES extract compensated for deficits in the total antioxidant activity, suppressed lipid peroxidation, and amended the APAP-induced histopathological kidney alterations. Moreover, ES treatment restored the elevated levels of urea nitrogen in the blood and creatinine in the serum by APAP. The ES extract attenuated the APAP-induced elevations in renal nitric oxide levels. We clarified that the ES extract has the potential to defend the kidney from APAP-induced inflammation, and the protection mechanism might be through decreasing oxidative stress and regulating the inflammatory signaling pathway through modulating key signaling inflammatory biomarkers.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire
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Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or agents of organic origin, usually obtained by biological methods or assay. They are used especially in diagnosis and treatment of disease (as vaccines or pollen extracts). Biological products are differentiated from BIOLOGICAL FACTORS in that the latter are compounds with biological or physiological activity made by living organisms. (From Webster's 3d ed)
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
A blood protein (NSILA) which mimics the biological activity of insulin in serum, but is not suppressed by insulin antibodies. During acid-ethanol extraction of Cohn fraction III, 10% of the activity is found in the supernatant (NSILA-S) and the remaining activity in the precipitate (NSILA-P). The latter is a large molecular compound, much less stable than the soluble fraction. NSILA-S is a more potent growth factor than insulin and exhibits sulfation activity.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are non-specific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experi...