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An airborne high repetition rate laser-induced plasma was applied as a versatile ambient ionization source for mass-spectrometric determinations of polar and nonpolar analytes in solution. The laser plasma was sustained between a homebuilt pneumatic nebulizer and the inlet capillary of an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. To maintain stable conditions in the droplet-rich spray environment, the plasma was directly fed by the fundamental output ( = 1064 nm) of a current state-of-the-art diode-pumped solid-state laser. Ionization by the laser-driven plasma resulted in signals of intact analyte ions of several chemical categories. The analyte ions were found to be fully desolvated since no further increase in ion signal was observed upon heating of the inlet capillary. Due to the electroneutrality of the plasma, both positive and negative analyte ions could be formed simultaneously without altering the operational parameters of the ion source. While, typically, polar analytes with pronounced gas phase basicities worked best, nonpolar and amphoteric compounds were also detected. The latter were detected with lower ion signals and were prone to a certain degree of fragmentation induced during the ionization process. All the described attests the laser-induced microplasma by a good performance in terms of stability, robustness, sensitivity, and general applicability as a self-contained ion source for the liquid sample introduction.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Analytical chemistry
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A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A technique utilizing a laser coupled to a catheter which is used in the dilatation of occluded blood vessels. This includes laser thermal angioplasty where the laser energy heats up a metal tip, and direct laser angioplasty where the laser energy directly ablates the occlusion. One form of the latter approach uses an EXCIMER LASER which creates microscopically precise cuts without thermal injury. When laser angioplasty is performed in combination with balloon angioplasty it is called laser-assisted balloon angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, LASER-ASSISTED).
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.
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