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There is some evidence that place of residence is associated with cancer survival, but the findings are inconsistent, and the underlying mechanisms by which residential location might affect survival are not well understood. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies investigating the association of rural versus urban residence with cancer survival in high-income countries. We searched the Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases up to May 31, 2016. Forty-five studies published between 1984 and 2016 were included. We extracted unadjusted and adjusted relative risk estimates with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Most studies reported worse survival for cancer patients living in rural areas than those in urban regions. The most consistent evidence, observed across several studies, was for colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer. Of the included studies, 18 did not account for socio-economic position. Lower survival for more disadvantaged patients is well documented; therefore, it could be beneficial for future research to take socio-economic factors into consideration when assessing rural/urban differences in cancer survival. Some studies cited differential stage at diagnosis and treatment modalities as major contributing factors to regional inequalities in cancer survival. Further research is needed to disentangle the mediating effects of these factors, which may help to establish effective interventions to improve survival for patients living outside major cities.
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Although social exposures have complex and dynamic relationships and interactions, the existing literature on the impact of rural-urban residence on stage at breast cancer diagnosis does not examine h...
Rural adolescents engage in higher smoking and smokeless tobacco use rates than those from urban communities; urban adolescents are more likely to use e-cigarettes. The study investigated whether plac...
To examine change over time in cigarette smoking among rural and urban adolescents and to test whether rates of change differ by rural versus urban residence.
Physical activity has numerous associated benefits for cancer survivors. Compared with their urban counterparts, rural Australians experience a health disadvantage, including poorer survival rate afte...
Studies showing that patients with cancer from rural areas have worse outcomes than their urban counterparts have relied on cancer population data and did not account for differences in access to care...
There is existing evidence that rural cancer patients tend to have worse survival outcomes. Potential reasons include: differences in endurance of coping with illness, different attitudes ...
The proposed research fills a significant gap in rigorous intervention studies to eliminate rural-urban disparities in cancer outcomes. The persistent poverty and health disparities in Sou...
This research was designed with partners to determine differences in temperature exposures in urban and rural communities in Alabama. The investigators hypothesized that significant differ...
This study evaluates the effectiveness of two online Lifestyle Medicine programs. Participants will be randomized by residence, urban vs. rural, into one of two Lifestyle Medicine programs...
Objective 1: To assess environmental exposure to chemicals/toxins, including phthalates, among rural and urban Mexican American men and women (n=300), aged 18 to 40, in urban Baytown, TX ...
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
Acute, localized autoinoculable infectious disease usually acquired through sexual contact. Caused by HAEMOPHILUS DUCREYI, it occurs endemically almost worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical countries and more commonly in seaports and urban areas than in rural areas.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...